european organisation for astronomical

[128][129][130][131][132], ePOD also manages the ESO Supernova Planetarium & Visitor Centre, an astronomy centre located at the site of the ESO Headquarters in Garching bei München, which was inaugurated 26 April 2018. This agrees with known cosmology, which gives an age of the universe of 13.8 billion years. These images will complement those made with the VLT Interferometer. [112], Outreach activities are carried out by the ESO education and Public Outreach Department (ePOD). Should you have any recommendations or questions, please don’t hesitate and send us an e-mail using this link Have a nice day! The light beams are combined in the VLTI with a complex system of mirrors in tunnels, where the light paths must diverge less than 1/1000 mm over 100 metres. Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are bursts of highly energetic gamma rays lasting from less than one second to several minutes. Astronomers use this light to study the chemical and physical conditions in these molecular clouds, the dense regions of gas and cosmic dust where new stars are being born. 1-Dec-2019. APEX is based on a prototype ALMA antenna that is modified to be operated as single dish radio telescope. The agreement involves Breakthrough Initiatives providing funding for an upgrade to the VISIR (VLT Imager and Spectrometer for mid-Infrared)[92] instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile. These techniques use the grid paradigm of distributed computing with seamless, transparent access to data through virtual observatories (VOs). It is a 12-metre (39 ft)-diameter telescope operating at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths, the largest of its kind in the southern hemisphere. 5 Oct 1962, Paris (France), as European Southern Observatory.Statutes registered in 'UNTS 1/14697'.. Teams of European astronomers will conduct the surveys; some will cover most of the southern sky, while others will focus on smaller areas. ESO provides state-of-the-art research facilities to astronomers and is supported by Austria, Be Four 1.8-metre auxiliary telescopes (ATs), installed between 2004 and 2007, have been added to the VLTI for accessibility when the UTs are used for other projects. European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation European Organization - Parents Association in Catholic Education European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere The ESO La Silla Observatory also played a role in the study of supernova SN 1987A. Until 2003, it was suspected that two different types of cosmic event caused them. An essay contest was prior arranged for schoolchildren in the region concerning the meaning of these names which attracted many entries dealing with the cultural heritage of ESO's host country. External organisation (NGO) Name: European Astronomical Society. [58], The first of the UTs had its first light in May 1998, and was offered to the astronomical community on 1 April 1999. The Atacama Pathfinder Experiment telescope is operated by ESO in collaboration with the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany and the Onsala Space Observatory in Onsala, Sweden. ESO, European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere The European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere , commonly referred to as the European Southern Observatory (ESO), is a 16-nation intergovernmental research organisation for ground-based astronomy. [64] The four unit telescopes, UT1, UT2, UT3 and UT4, are since known as Antu (sun), Kueyen (moon), Melipal (Southern Cross), and Yepun (Evening Star),[65] with the latter having been originally mistranslated as "Sirius", instead of "Venus". The new draft was examined in detail, and a council member of CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research) highlighted the need for a convention between governments (in addition to organisations). Discoveries made with La Silla telescopes include the HARPS-spectrograph detection of the planets orbiting within the Gliese 581 planetary system, which contains the first known rocky planet in a habitable zone outside the solar system. European Southern Observatory, ESO) ist ein europäisches Forschungsinstitut, das Teleskope in Chile betreibt. A step in the attempt to answer this question is the search for planets outside the Solar System. Their data showed that the light had similar properties to that of a supernova, and allowed astronomers to link long-duration GRBs with the ultimate explosions of massive stars (hypernovae). Although some amendments were made in the initial document, the convention proceeded slowly until 1960 when it was discussed during that year's committee meeting. VISTA's main mirror is 4.1 metres (13 ft) across, a highly curved mirror for its size and quality. [41], The New Technology Telescope (NTT) is an altazimuth, 3.58-metre Ritchey–Chrétien telescope, inaugurated in 1989 and the first in the world with a computer-controlled main mirror. [80] A call for ALMA science proposals was issued on 31 March 2011,[81] and early observations began on 3 October. Its observatories are lo… Tim de Zeeuw talks on ESO and its 50th Anniversary. It occurred when the universe was less than 600 million years old (less than five percent of its present age), and released 300 times as much energy in a few seconds as the sun will in its entire lifetime (more than 10 billion years). The conclusion was that short-duration bursts could not be caused by a hypernova; instead, it is thought that they originate in the violent merges of neutron stars or black holes. The VST and VISTA produce more than 100 terabytes of data per year.[73]. The antennas can be arranged across the desert plateau over distances from 150 metres to 16 kilometres (9.9 mi), which will give ALMA a variable "zoom". These images are from ESO's top-100 list. In addition, there are four 1.8-metre (5 ft 11 in) auxiliary telescopes forming an array used for interferometric observations. On November 15, 1963 Chile was chosen as the site for ESO's observatory. It is dry and inhospitable to humans, but a good site for submillimetre astronomy; because water vapour molecules in Earth's atmosphere absorb and attenuate submillimetre radiation, a dry site is required for this type of radio astronomy. Although the planet is large (five times more massive than Jupiter), this observation is a first step toward identifying the physical structure and chemical composition of exoplanets. The observatory hosts visitor instruments, attached to a telescope for the duration of an observational run and then removed. Its deviations from a perfect surface are less than a few thousandths the thickness of a human hair, and its construction and polishing presented a challenge. [105], The nature of these explosions has long been a mystery. Observations of gamma-ray-burst afterglows were coordinated between the VLT and the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) to identify the possible counterpart (and its decay) at submillimeter wavelengths.[108]. The final 1962 version was largely adopted from the CERN convention, due to similarities between the organisations and the dual membership of some members.[18]. The temporary office buildings at the ESO Headquarters in Garching being dismantled. [79] ALMA is a collaboration between East Asia (Japan and Taiwan), Europe (ESO), North America (USA and Canada) and Chile. The flexible mirror's shape is adjusted during observation to preserve optimal image quality. European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) Country Germany. VISTA's infrared view of the Orion Nebula, A 340-million pixel starscape from Paranal, The WR 22 and Eta Carinae regions of the Carina Nebula, The future ALMA array on Chajnantor (artist's rendering), Rare 360-degree Panorama of the Southern Sky, 370-million-pixel starscape of the Lagoon Nebula, The R Coronae Australis region imaged with the Wide Field Imager at La Silla, Coordinates: 48°15′36″N 11°40′16″E / 48.26000°N 11.67111°E / 48.26000; 11.67111, Intergovernmental organization and observatory in Chile, "ESO" redirects here. Seen in visible light, these regions of the universe are often dark and obscure due to dust; however, they shine brightly in the millimetre and submillimetre portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. [122] These include a range of programs and products that aim to meet the requirements of media, science communicators and the public, such as press releases, images, videos and printed material. [100] Their paths conclusively demonstrated that they were orbiting in the immense gravitational grip of a supermassive black hole nearly three million times more massive than the sun. ESO's 50th-anniversary event (Munich Residenz in Germany, 11 October 2012), ESO's first 50 years of exploring the southern sky. The best place to find jobs and internships all across Europe in the broad fields of Engineering, Software, Science and Technology. Events such as the 2009 International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009) (with IAU and UNESCO), VLT First Light, Astronomy Online and the Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9 impact, have been reported by the Department. team [77][78] APEX is a precursor of ALMA (the Atacama Large Millimeter Array), an astronomical interferometer which ESO and its international partners is building on the Chajnantor plateau. [98], Another result is the first measurement of the beryllium content of two stars in a Milky Way globular cluster. On January 26, 1954, an ESO declaration was signed by astronomers from six European countries expressing the wish that a joint European observatory be established in the southern hemisphere. [27][28][29], Each year about 2,000 requests are made for the use of ESO telescopes, for four to six times more nights than are available. Otto Heckmann was nominated as the organisation's first director general on 1 November 1962. The archive contains more than 1.5 million images (or spectra) with a total volume of about 65 terabytes (65,000,000,000,000 bytes) of data. 2009/1748) (“the ESO Order”) and the European Space Agency (Immunities and Privileges) Order 1978 (S.I. 2 in Garching bei München Hochschul- und Forschungszentrum, ☎ Telefon 089 32006900 mit ⌚ Öffnungszeiten und Anfahrtsplan A preliminary proposal for a convention of astronomy organisations in these five countries was drafted in 1954. Although ESO is headquartered in Germany, its telescopes and observatories are in northern Chile, where the organisation operates advanced ground-based astronomical facilities: These are among the best locations for astronomical observations in the southern hemisphere. [42], The design of the octagonal enclosure housing the NTT is innovative. [26] As decided by the ESO council on 26 April 2010, a fourth site (Cerro Armazones) is to be home to ELT. VISTA and the VST are expected to produce large amounts of data; a single picture taken by VISTA has 67 megapixels, and images from OmegaCam (on the VST) will have 268 megapixels. [141] Science releases describe results (usually appearing in a peer-reviewed journal) involving data from ESO observatories or staff. [86] However, few of these planets are among the smallest ever discovered, or reside in its star's habitable zone. All former entries are available on the website. Network collaborations 2 Networks 0 active Networks () … EUROPEAN SOUTHERN OBSERVATORY - ESO EUROPEAN ORGANISATION FOR ASTRONOMICAL RESEARCH IN THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE, European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO), 2 Networks Currently under construction is the Extremely Large Telescope. Breakthroughs in telescope, detector and computer technology now allow astronomical surveys to produce large numbers of images, spectra and catalogues. Astronomers are developing ways to make the large amount of data easily accessible. The Llano de Chajnantor is a 5,100-metre-high (16,700 ft) plateau in the Atacama Desert, about 50 kilometres (31 mi) east of San Pedro de Atacama. The site is 750 metres (2,460 ft) higher than the Mauna Kea Observatory and 2,400 metres (7,900 ft) higher than the VLT in Cerro Paranal. The telescope was designed for very high long-term radial velocity accuracy (on the order of 1 m/s). [71][72], The scientific goals of both surveys range from the nature of dark energy to assessing near-Earth objects. Stars at the centre of the Milky Way are so densely packed that special imaging techniques (such as adaptive optics) were needed to boost the resolution of the VLT. [10], The idea that European astronomers should establish a common large observatory was broached by Walter Baade and Jan Oort at the Leiden Observatory in the Netherlands in spring 1953. About 300 reviewed publications annually are attributable to the work of the observatory. 1962-10-05 Paris France History. A year later, this detection was confirmed as the first picture of an exoplanet ever recorded. Its main array will have 50 12-metre (39 ft) antennas acting as a single interferometer. [134][135] Products from educational material to press kits may be downloaded from the ePOD website or ordered in physical form. [55] In March 2008, Paranal was the location for several scenes of the 22nd James Bond film, Quantum of Solace. The decision to build the observatory in the southern hemisphere resulted from the necessity of observing the southern sky; some research subjects (such as the central parts of the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds) were accessible only from the southern hemisphere.[14]. The VLT has observed the afterglow of the farthest known gamma-ray burst. European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) (ESO) - description de l'entreprise, bureau ou cabinet avec histoire, informations de contact et adresses, liste des oe uvres (ponts, tunnels, barrages et autres ouvrages d'art ou d'architecture), personnes importantes, littérature, liens, … The organisation employs about 730 staff members and receives annual member state contributions of approximately €162 million. ESO also publishes several newsletters aimed at scientists and the general public; these are available upon subscription.[146]. The Messenger is a quarterly journal which has presented ESO's activities to the public since May 1974. Timelapses of ESO's VLT, ALMA and La Silla site. The telescope dome is relatively small and ventilated by a system of flaps directing airflow smoothly across the mirror, reducing turbulence and resulting in sharper images.[43]. Breakthrough Starshot[95] is a proof of concept mission to send a fleet of ultra-fast light-driven nanocraft to explore the Alpha Centauri star system, which could pave the way for a first launch within the next generation. The star (and the Milky Way) must have formed soon after the Big Bang. [39], The ESO 3.6-metre telescope began operations in 1977. La Silla also hosts national telescopes, such as the 1.2-metre Swiss and the 1.5-metre Danish telescopes. [3] Its observatories are located in northern Chile. Other instruments used are GROND (Gamma-Ray Burst Optical Near-Infrared Detector), which seeks the afterglow of gamma-ray bursts—the most powerful explosions in the universe,[45] and the high-resolution spectrograph FEROS (Fiber-fed Extended Range Optical Spectrograph), used to make detailed studies of stars. 0 active Networks ", "Fifty New Exoplanets Discovered by HARPS", "It's Far, It's Small, It's Cool: It's an Icy Exoplanet! The two survey telescopes collect more data every night than all the other instruments on the VLT combined. ESO stands for European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere. We use cookies for statistical purposes and to remember your settings. [97], Like carbon dating over longer timescales, the uranium clock measures the age of a star. The possibility exists that one of these planets is covered by oceans; this discovery is an encouraging result in the search for planets which could support life. Although it was initially planned to set up telescopes in South Africa (where several European observatories were located), tests from 1955 to 1963 demonstrated that a site in the Andes was preferable. (). 1978/1105) (“the ESA Order”). On behalf of its thirteen member states ESO operates a suite of the world's most advanced ground-based astronomical telescopes located at the La … In 1966, the first ESO telescope at the La Silla site in Chile began operating. Several months later, ESO's telescope division moved into a CERN building in Geneva and ESO's Sky Atlas Laboratory was established on CERN property. For this reason, most exoplanets have been detected with indirect methods. Observations made with these instruments appear in a number of peer-reviewed publications annually; in 2017, more than 1,000 reviewed papers based on ESO data were published.[30]. European Astronomical Society (External organisation) Activity: Membership › Membership of committee › Professional. This Order amends the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (Immunities and Privileges) Order 2009 (S.I. [56][57], The main facility at Paranal is the VLT, which consists of four nearly identical 8.2-metre (27 ft) unit telescopes (UTs), each hosting two or three instruments. Welcome to our European job board [30] The VLT's scientific discoveries include imaging an extrasolar planet,[61] tracking individual stars moving around the supermassive black hole at the centre of the Milky Way[62] and observing the afterglow of the furthest known gamma-ray burst. The Science Archive Operation Group receives and redistributes ESO data and provides archival support. It has been upgraded, including the installation of a new secondary mirror. [12] It was pursued by Oort, who gathered a group of astronomers in Leiden to consider it on June 21 that year. The discovery means that surveys of supermassive black holes have underestimated their numbers by a factor of two to five. The Atacama Large Millimeter Array observes the universe in the millimetre and submillimetre wavelength ranges, and is the world's largest ground-based astronomy project to date. ERA-LEARN has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 811171. [74] The telescopes are: APEX and ALMA are telescopes designed for millimetre and submillimetre astronomy. [84][85], Despite the fact that planets seem very common in the universe they are tiny, faint objects at cosmic scales; this makes their detection difficult with current technology. For the first time, they measured the amount of the radioactive isotope uranium-238 in a star born when the Milky Way was still forming. For other uses, see, ESO logo and map of participating countries, Architect's rendering of ESO headquarters extension, A Bird's-eye View of ESO headquarters in 2014, VLT Laser Guide Star. The array will be able to probe the universe at millimetre and submillimeter wavelengths with unprecedented sensitivity and resolution, with vision up to ten times sharper than the Hubble Space Telescope. The European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere,[2] commonly referred to as the European Southern Observatory (ESO), is a 16-nation intergovernmental research organisation for ground-based astronomy. The 2.2-metre telescope has been in operation at La Silla since early 1984, and is on indefinite loan to ESO from the Max Planck Society (Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften, or MPG, in German). In 2013, the IMAX documentary Hidden Universe 3D was produced in co-operation of Cinema Productions, Film Victoria, Swinburne University of Technology, and the European Southern Observatory. Suggest new definition. [66], Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) is housed on the peak adjacent to the one hosting the VLT, sharing observational conditions. Observations show that GRBs are one of two types: short- (less than a few seconds) and long-duration. Telescope time is shared between MPG and ESO observing programmes, while operation and maintenance of the telescope are ESO's responsibility. Please check our privacy and cookies policy. This technology (developed by ESO and known as active optics) is now applied to all major telescopes, including the VLT and the future ELT. ESO's observing facilities have made astronomical discoveries and produced several astronomical catalogues. This type of astronomy is a relatively unexplored frontier, revealing a universe which cannot be seen in more-familiar visible or infrared light and ideal for studying the "cold universe"; light at these wavelengths shines from vast cold clouds in interstellar space at temperatures only a few tens of degrees above absolute zero. The scientific goals of ALMA include studying the origin and formation of stars, galaxies, and planets with observations of molecular gas and dust, studying distant galaxies towards the edge of the observable universe and studying relic radiation from the Big Bang. Cerro Paranal is a 2,635-metre-high (8,645 ft) mountain about 120 kilometres (75 mi) south of Antofagasta and 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) from the Pacific coast. [37][38] Several telescopes at La Silla played a role in linking gamma-ray bursts, the most energetic explosions in the universe since the Big Bang, with the explosions of massive stars. Eso European Organisation For Astronomical Research in The Southern Hemisphere KARL-SCHWARZSCHILD-STR. The ESOcast[147] is a video-podcast series dedicated to reporting news and research from ESO. The telescope's design and construction were managed by the Science and Technology Facilities Council's UK Astronomy Technology Centre (STFC, UK ATC). [19] ESO's European departments moved into the new ESO headquarters in Garching (near Munich), Germany in 1980. [93][94] The planet, called Proxima Centauri b, could be a potential target for one of the projects of Breakthrough Initiatives. English - ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. HARPS (the High Accuracy Radial-velocity Planet Searcher) has allowed the discovery of a number of planets with masses below that of Neptune orbiting nearby stars. The organisation publishes three types of press releases. Die Europäische Organisation für astronomische Forschung in der südlichen Hemisphäre (englisch European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere) oder in der Kurzform Europäische Südsternwarte (engl. A 17-year-old adolescent from Chuquicamata, near Calama, submitted the winning essay and was awarded an amateur telescope during the inauguration. ESO is the intergovernmental European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere. See other definitions of ESO. ", "VLT to Search for Planets in Alpha Centauri System – ESO Signs Agreement with Breakthrough Initiatives", "Planet Found in Habitable Zone Around Nearest Star – Pale Red Dot campaign reveals Earth-mass world in orbit around Proxima Centauri", "GRAVITY instrument breaks new ground in exoplanet imaging – Cutting-edge VLTI instrument reveals details of a storm-wracked exoplanet using optical interferometry", "A Supermassive Black Hole in a Nearby Galaxy", "The Most Distant Object Yet Discovered in the Universe", "Cosmological Gamma-Ray Bursts and Hypernovae Conclusively Linked", "Witnessing the Flash from a Black Hole's Cannibal Act", "GCN CIRCULAR, GRB 100814A: Submm observations from APEX, NASA email message", "Science Archive and the Digital Universe", International Virtual Observatory Alliance, "Distant Supernovae Indicate Ever-Expanding Universe", "Scientists studying universe's expansion win Nobel Prize in Physics", "VLT Captures First Direct Spectrum of an Exoplanet", "Astronomers detect matter torn apart by black hole", "Milky Way Past Was More Turbulent Than Previously Known", "A Molecular Thermometer for the Distant Universe", "Groundbreaking Ceremony for ESO Supernova Planetarium & Visitor Centre", "Products from the education and Public Outreach Department", "Space Scoop: Astronomy News for Children", Webpage for the ESO telescopes at La Silla Observatory, 2011 video explaining the current and planned work of ESO, Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility,, International scientific organizations based in Europe, Articles with dead external links from January 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 3 November 2020, at 21:41. In March 2019, ESO astronomers, employing the GRAVITY instrument on their Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI), announced the first direct detection of an exoplanet, HR 8799 e, using optical interferometry. Aims. [16] The decision was preceded by the ESO Convention, signed 5 October 1962 by Belgium, Germany, France, the Netherlands and Sweden. [136][137], As part of the Department, European outreach for the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope provides comprehensive information about the telescope and its scientific discoveries. Of these, the most successful has been the radial velocity method. It will use a 39.3-metre-diameter segmented mirror, and become the world's largest optical reflecting telescope when operational in 2024. With this measurement, astronomers found that the first generation of stars in our galaxy must have formed soon after the end of the 200-million-year "Dark Age" following the Big Bang.[99]. [63], At the Paranal inauguration in March 1999, names of celestial objects in the Mapuche language were chosen to replace the technical designations of the four VLT Unit Telescopes (UT1–UT4). This definition appears very frequently and is found in the following Acronym Finder categories: Science, medicine, engineering, etc. [133], A collection of photos and videos can be found in the ESO Public Image Gallery and Video Library.

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